Physicists Close to Unlocking Proton’s Secret

Jester scientists have made significant progress in unraveling one of the biggest secrets of physics – the source of the back of the Proton. By combining experimental data with advanced computing calculations, a more detailed understanding of the Glue contribution holding the quark inside the proton has been achieved. This innovative method paves the way for creating a three-dimensional model of the proton’s structure, leading to a better comprehension of the fundamental properties of matter.

The study, led by Joseph Carpy, a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics (Theory Center) at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory in the USA, marks a breakthrough in the quest to uncover the origins of the proton’s back.

The mystery surrounding the proton’s back dates back to 1987 when the first measurements of its sources were conducted. Initially, it was thought that quarks, the fundamental particles that make up the proton, were the main source of its back. However, it was later discovered that quarks only contribute about 30% to the proton’s total back. The remaining 70% comes from two other more elusive sources: gluons, carriers of strong interaction, and the orbital motion of quarks within the proton. Solving this longstanding mystery will enhance our understanding of strong interaction and adron structures.

One of the sources contributing to the proton’s back is strong interaction, one of the fundamental forces in the universe that binds quarks together to form protons and other adrons. Gluons, the carriers of strong interaction, also play a significant role in the spin of the proton due to their internal spin moment. The remainder of the proton’s back stems from the orbital motion of quarks and gluons, vortex currents formed within this subatomic particle. A detailed comprehension of the proton’s back is crucial for the fundamental theory of strong interactions known as quantum chromodynamics, which describes the behavior of quarks and gluons.

In a new study, two groups of scientists focused on understanding the Gluon’s contribution to the spin of the proton. Initial experimental measurements of the Gluon’s back were conducted at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These measurements initially hinted at a positive impact of gluons on the proton’s spin.

However, upon further data analysis, new findings emerged. Carpy explained, “With improved analysis, two contrasting sets of results emerged: some showed a positive contribution

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