65 years ago, September 25, 1956, at a meeting of the leadership of OKB-1 (now – RKK “Energia”, is part of the state corporation “Roscosmos”) Soviet scientist, constructor of rocket and space systems Sergey Pavlovich Korolev made a report on the development A sketch project of the world’s first artificial satellite of the Earth. Less than a year later, on October 4, 1957, a satellite opened on an near-earth orbit, which opened the cosmic era in the history of mankind.
Satellite, which became the first artificial celestial body, was removed in space a rocket-carrier R-7 from the 5th Scientific Research Test Polygon of the USSR Ministry of Defense, which was subsequently the open name of the Baikonur cosmodrome.
PS-1 spacecraft (the simplest satellite-1) was a ball with a diameter of 58 centimeters, weighed 83.6 kilograms, was equipped with four pin antennas with a length of 2.4 and 2.9 meters for transmitting signals of transmitter batteries. After 295 seconds after the start of PS-1 and the central rocket block weighing 7.5 tons were removed on elliptical orbit height in Apoghee 947 km and Periguee 288 km. As of 315 seconds after the start, he separated from the second stage of the carrier rocket, and immediately his call sign heard the whole world.
Over the creation of an artificial satellite of the Earth led by the founder of practical cosmonautics S.P. Korolev worked scientists M.V. Keldysh, M.K. Tikhonravov, N.S. Lidorenko, V.I. LAPKO, B.S. Checans and many others.
Satellite PS-1 flew 92 days, until January 4, 1958, making 1440 revolutions around the Earth (about 60 million kilometers), and its radio transmitters worked for two weeks after the start.
The launch of an artificial satellite of the Earth had a huge meaning for the knowledge of the properties of the outer space and the study of the Earth as the planet of our solar system. Analysis of the received signals from the satellite gave scientists the opportunity to study the upper layers of the ionosphere, which before that did not seem possible. In addition, it was obtained useful for further launches information about the working conditions of the equipment, all calculations were verified, and the density of the upper layers of the atmosphere on the braking of the satellite was determined.
The launch of the first artificial satellite of the Earth received a huge global resonance. About his flight recognized the whole world. The whole world press spoke about this event. In September 1967, the International Federation of Astronautics proclaimed on October 4, on October 4, the beginning of the beginning of the cosmic era of mankind.